Based on Cory Doctrow's Interoperaability: Fix the Internet, Not the Tech Companies
The argument is that fixing big problems with the tech companies needs to allow adversarial interoperability so that new players can come in, rather than trust the existing big players (e.g. facebook)
This is perhaps going to play out in digital education due to platforms. e.g. O365 where not just the vendor is going to be limiting interoperability, but also the local folk in charge of those platforms. Where the shadow systems and efficiency/safety trap drives the desire to limit this capability.
This is the space where interoperability has to become than just using the plug and err toward the side of protean technology
Company A doens't care/know that Company B makes a product that interoperates with the B product.
e.g. early evolution of cigarette lighter in cars
Companies are eager for others to create add-ons. Adopt a standard.
But standards use can be "managed" by companies to prefer certain things (e.g. bluetooth "firewall"). "...cooperative interoperability is always subject to corporate boundaries..."
But as with all technological questions, the relevant question isn't merely "What does this technology do?" It's "Who does this technology do it to and who does it do it for?"
Where the manufacturer is outright hostile to it and work against it. Adversarial interoperability is when someone does it anyway. In spite of the manufacturer